Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension in Coastal and Estuarine Communities

Document Type: Systematic Review


School of Nursing, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Indonesia


Introduction: Hypertension has been globally burden disease since 1990s. Hypertension is one of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. More than a decade, Hypertension was the most cause of death around the world, and one of ten leading causes of death in lower-middle income countries include coastal and estuarine communities. As preventable illness condition, hypertension has been found to be associated some modifiable factors. This review aims to identify prevalence and determinants of hypertension both in coastal and estuarine communities, in high-, and low- and middle-income countries.
Methods: Four journal databases used such as Proquest, Science Direct, Google Scholar, DOAJ to address prevalence and determinants of hypertension in coastal and estuarine communities both in high-, and low- and middle-income countries.
Result: The prevalence of hypertension ranging from 6.445% to 85.1%. In coastal communities, the prevalence of hypertension was counted from 6.45% to 51.1%, while pre hypertension from 26.5% to 39.75%. In the estuarine community prevalence of hypertension is about 25.29%. The high prevalence both pre hypertension and hypertension was in Kerala, India, while in China was the lowest. High sodium intake has strongly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Other risk factors identified socio-demographic include older age, lower education, sexes, and lower economic status; body weight status (overweight or obese), health behavior (physical inactivity, daily smoker, heavy alcohol drinking), and psychosocial stress (depression), to be linked with hypertension.
Conclusion: strategies to improve the prevention of hypertension in coastal and estuarine communities are needed, particularly managing and modifying of some modifiable factors.