Document Type: Narrative Review
Department of Periodontology, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences, Telangana, India
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Andhra Pradesh, India
Periodontitis is a multi-factorial disease with a broad spectrum of inflammatory and destructive responses leading to loss of periodontium and tooth-supporting bone. The aim of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the periodontium lost due to periodontal disease. Tissue regeneration in the oral cavity is regulated by signalling molecules, cells, and by matrix formation. Maintenance of the integrity of healthy periodontium and regeneration of the periodontium are achieved by a balance between bone formation and bone resorption termed as bone coupling. Traditional regeneration techniques using grafts and membranes were unpredictable and could not achieve complete regeneration. Periodontal tissue engineering focuses on regenerating the form and function of hard and soft tissues using signalling molecules, scaffolds, and cells. Bony defects may vary in size from small intrabony defects to large horizontal and vertical bone defects in periodontal diseases that prove critical for implant rehabilitation. For decades, efforts have been made to achieve predictable and reliable bone regeneration using various methods. This review focuses on the various materials and methods that are currently being used and which are in the research stage for 3D printing of patient-specific custom-made scaffolds for periodontal regeneration.