Document Type: Narrative Review
Department of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Synthetic dyes are increasingly used in industries such as medicine, pharmaceuticals, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, photography, food, etc. These compounds have severe environmental effects; most are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. In addition, they are usually resistant to degradation, and decolorizing them by physical or chemical methods, such as surface absorption, sedimentation, chemical analysis, light analysis, etc., requires substantial amounts of money, time, and energy. At the moment, the attention of most researchers in this field is focused on microorganisms with the ability to remove dyes from color materials. Innovative processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater which contains heavy metals and dyes are often used to reduce environmental pollution and the toxicity of these pollutants to cause the wastewater to meet purification standards. Research has shown that microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeasts can play an important role in decolorizing wastewater. The purpose of this paper is to review the causes of contamination and the role of fungi in decolorizing industrial wastewater.