Document Type: Narrative Review
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Liverpool Heart and Chest, Liverpool, UK
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become much safer over the last 50 years due to advancement in clinical practice and technology development. However, it is still a complex and high-risk operation that carries significant morbidities and mortality. The most serious adverse events are death, stroke, bleeding requiring further surgery, peri-operative myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, and deep sternal wound infection. Each complication has an approximate risk of 1%-2%, and they must be fully discussed with the patient during the consent process. Many other complications can occur as the procedure affects the entire circulatory system and the visceral organs. Advancements have been made in cardiopulmonary bypass, graft selection, operating room practices, and multi-disciplinary team-working to reduce the risk of such complications occurring. This review article focused on the key complications of CABG.