Document Type: Mini Review
Human Genetics Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Tehran, Iran
Natural disasters and man-made incidents take the lives of many individuals and leave them unable to be identified. In such cases, the only possible way to detect an unidentified body or its parts is through genetic markers. This technology is based on the theory that inter-individual differences result from differences in the genetic information held in their DNA. A genetic database covering a target population can be used whenever necessary to identify otherwise unidentifiable individuals. A total of 99% of the DNA of every human is the same; in fact, only a relatively small amount is different. Genetic tests can be carried out to distinguish individuals from each other. One percent of the variable genomic regions that frequently and sporadically emerge are genetic markers. Several types of sequences, including variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs), short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Y chromosomes, and mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) at the DNA level, can be used to identify individuals. Each of these sequences has its own capabilities and limitations and can be used by anyone depending on the type of database application. With a genetic database of individuals working in high-risk occupations such as the armed forces and the software-based management of this information, it will be possible to identify genetically the bodies of unidentifiable victims of accidents and incidents. This study introduces and evaluates the sequences that can be used in genetic databases.