An Investigation into the Biochemical, Hematological, and Histopathological effects of Glyphaea brevis Extracts in Albino rats: Toxicological Appraisal

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Physical Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Okha, Benin City, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Sciences Faculty of Science and Science Education Anchor University, Lagos, Nigeria

3 Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria


Introduction: Drugs from the plants are easily available, less expensive, safe, and efficient and rarely have side effects. Glyphaea brevis leaf decoction is reported to be the potent treatment of sexually transmitted infections, abortifacient, ecbolic, and antiemetic, in eye treatment, liver problems and nasopharyngeal infections.
Methods: The aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Glyphaea brevis sample were administered to the rats orally once daily at a dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, body weight for 30 days (on short-term effect) and 60 days (long-term effect). The hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination were studied in the rats. 
Results: There was a significant difference within the hematological profile of the studied rats for all doses of the methanolic extracts of G. brevis (p < 0.05). The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and amount of oxygen delivered to the tissues of the rats had increased following extract administration. Alanine minotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the albino rats at all dosage administered were statistically significant compared to the control. Histopathological examination showed kupffer cell activation in the liver, normal histology of the kidney and tubules, no signs of glomeronephritis, and mild coronary vascular congestion of the heart. 
Conclusion: It is proposed that G. brevis plant extract has a function of raising White blood cells WBC levels within a normal range such that it can efficiently and effectively fight infections. Treatment with the extracts suggested no impairment of normal kidney functions, thus could be considered as a natural product in the management of diseases.