Glymphatic and Immun Systems of the Brain

Document Type : Mini Review


1 Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Kırıkkale, Turkey

2 Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Bolu, Turkey

3 Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, Bolu, Turkey


Even though brain lymphatic system has several peculiarities including the construction of the endothelial cells of the lymph vessels, in common with the lymphatic system of the body in general, studies have documented eminent discrepancy. The unique lymphatic system of the brain is called ‘’the glymphatic system’’ due to its lymphatic system-like function and glial-like fluid flow. The collaboratory functions of this system, and CSF and interstitial fluid has been documented. A recent discovery of this system has highlighted the requirement to review the diagnosis and treatment procedures of several neuronal diseases. With this discovery, anatomic, physiopathologic, immunologic, and genetic natures of this system have attracted attention of scientists. This review has summarized the accumulating information on the lymphatic system of the brain, particularly focusing on the function of the glymphatic system in fetus and newborn, cranial tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, brain metabolism and its relationship with sleep, and the anatomical posture of the body. Yet, the cells responsible with the brain immune system and their relationship with the glymphatic system have been discussed. By summarizing the latest information on the relationship of this system with immunologic, molecular, physiologic, and anatomical aspects of several neuronal diseases, this paper will surely contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of them through shedding light on the researchers.